Trade Liberalisation and Gender Implications
New Brief published by the Heinrich Boell Foundation and Third World
Network on “Industrial Trade Liberalisation and Gender Implications:
Developing Countries and India“, which looks at the issue of gender
impacts of trade liberalisation in the industrial sector, is the fifth
part of a series of briefs on gender impacts of trade, with reference
to developing countries and India.
brief tracks industrial trade liberalisation under the WTO, FTAs,
India’s autonomous liberalisation and export promotion, and outlines
issues related to women’s jobs in export oriented industries such
as garments, leather, gems and jewellery in developing countries and
Asia. But despite the higher number of jobs and employment, they still
face casual work, growing informalisation, piece rate work, wage differences
compared with men, precarious and unhealthy working conditions, inadequate
maternity and other benefits including leaves, and still have to cope
with most of the work at home. Because jobs are largely informal,
women lose disproportionately higher number of jobs and face wage
cuts under any form of crisis, e.g. a financial crisis.
brief highlights how the pliant and flexible nature of women workers
has been used as adjustment tools to cope with volatilities in trade
related demand and maintain competitive advantage. The liberalisation
package under the WTO and FTAs aggravate the situation of cut throat
competition among developing countries.
Third World Network